“Isolatek is able to develop solutions and systems for any particular tunnel requirement.”
CAFCO® FENDOLITE® M-II | Spray-Applied Fire Resistive Material (SFRM)
In recent years, there have been a number of severe fires in road and rail tunnels throughout the world. In all of these fires, significant damage was caused to the concrete tunnel linings resulting in long tunnel closures, costly repairs and major disruption to the local transport infrastructure.
Public confidence in the safety of tunnels declined and the impact on economic growth within the European Community led to the introduction of a European Directive 2004/54/EC and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 502 for Road Tunnels in 2004.
Article 13 of the European Directive calls for a Quantified Risk Assessment to be carried out for every tunnel on the Trans European Road Network (TERN) and this must be undertaken by an entity that is fully independent from the Tunnel Owner or Stakeholder. In the same way NFPA 502 requires an Engineering Analysis to be carried out in order to identify the specific operational risks for any particular tunnel. Isolatek International is able to assist in the development of appropriate structural fire protection solutions for any tunnel whether it is road, rail or metro.
CAFCO FENDOLITE M-II is the most commonly specified and widely used spray applied fire protection system for tunnel application throughout the world due to its long track record and ease of application. Internationally tested for all types of tunnel construction means that Isolatek is able to develop solutions and systems for any particular tunnel requirement (fire type, duration, failure criteria). With an independently developed Finite Element Model, CAFCO FENDOLITE M-II thicknesses can be optimised to provide the most cost-effective solution for any given fire scenario.
The system is proven to prevent concrete spalling damage and structural collapse of tunnel structures occurring as a result of their exposure to fire.
- Internationally tested and Assessed for Tunnel Applications (Rijkswaterstaat – RWS, HCinc, UL1709, etc)
- Proven durability with over 30 years of service
- Easily applied on complex shapes and tunnel profiles
- One-off application for the life of the tunnel
- Prevents concrete spalling in the event of fire
- Lightweight formulation results in reduced dead loads (approximately one-third that of concrete)
- Easily repaired if damaged
- Continuous Research and Development
- Unrivalled Technical Support
- Worldwide Manufacturing Facilities ensures availability
- International Network of specialist skilled applicators
- Single source for all passive fireproofing system components
Isolatek International manufactures and supplies the most effective passive fire protection systems for all types of tunnel constructions including Bored Tubes, Cut and Cover and Immersed Tube constructions. The system components include keycoats, retention meshes and anchors, CAFCO FENDOLITE M-II, an optional finish coat, and optional Light Reflective, durable and washable topcoats. The thickness of the CAFCO FENDOLITE M-II can be optimised to prevent concrete spalling and damage from occurring under any fire exposure conditions irrespective of its composition (strength, aggregate, mix ratio, etc.). The systems are internationally tested and assessed for many types of tunnel fires.
Fire Tests & Approvals
- Rijkswaterstaat (RWS) Curve
- Increased Time/Temperature Curve (HCinc)
- ANSI/UL1709 Rapid Fire Test of Protection Materials for Structural Steel
- 2nd ANSI/UL 1709 Rapid Rise Fire Test of Protection Materials for Structural Steel (following initial ANSI/UL 1709 Rapid Rise Fire Test)
- ANSI/UL1709 Environmental Exposure Tests (Aging, High Humidity, Industrial Atmosphere, Salt Spray, Combined Wet/Freeze/Dry Cycling, Acid Spray and Solvent Spray)
- BS 476, Parts 20-21: 1987 Appendix D Hydrocarbon Heating Conditions
- Gas Explosion Test (3-Bar Blast Overpressure)
- ANSI/UL 1709 Rapid Rise Fire Test (Following Gas Explosion)
- ISO 22899-1 Determination of the Resistance to Jet Fires of Passive Fire Protection Materials
- ISO 22899-1 Jet Fire Test (Following Gas Explosion Test)
- Major Specification and Approval Compliance
Rijkswaterstaat (RWS) Curve
Following a chain of major tunnel fires across Europe, the Ministry of Transport in the Netherlands developed the Rijkswaterstaat (RWS) curve, which is now the global standard for testing materials for use in tunnel fire protection. Materials that pass this test provide a means of effective fire protection for the concrete lining within tunnels to prevent concrete spalling under impact and thermal shock. The material is designed to inhibit the surface of the concrete lining from exceeding a temperature of 716°F (380°C) when subjected to fire exposure after a duration of two hours. This fire test represents the ignited contents of a 45,000 litre gasoline tanker spread over a surface area of 150 m².
Based on a series of full scale comprehensive fire tests, studies and analysis, the CAFCO FENDOLITE M-ll system meets and exceeds the requirements and carries numerous Efectis Group Certificates.
Increased Time/Temperature Curve (HCinc)
This curve was developed to meet the French Ministry of Transport Regulations (CIRCULAIRE INTERMINISTERIELLE No. 2000-63 introduced in August 2000) and represents the temperatures generated in tunnel fires. The maximum temperature of the HCinc curve is 2372°F (1300°C) which is more severe than the standard BS 476 Part 21, UL 1709 and other hydrocarbon Time/Temperature curves.
ANSI/UL 1709, Rapid Rise Fire Test of Protection Materials for Structural Steel
This fire test is provided to evaluate materials for use in petrochemical facilities and other similar structures that may be subjected to higher levels of heat generated by hydrocarbon-based fires. Unlike cellulosic-based fires, which are evaluated in accordance with test method ANSI/UL 263, ASTM E 119, which reaches a temperature of 2000°F (1093°C) over a period of 4 hours, the ANSI/UL1709 test method reaches 2000°F after five minutes and maintains that temperature over the duration of the test. Only materials tested and classified in accordance with UL 1709 can be used where the risk of a hydrocarbon fire exists.
CAFCO FENDOLITE M-ll is classified by Underwriters Laboratories for up to 4 hours protection in accordance with the Rapid Rise Fire Test. The specific listing within the UL Fire Resistance Directory is UL Design XR704 , UL Design XR729 , UL Design XR730
2nd ANSI/UL 1709, Rapid Rise Fire Test of Protection Materials for Structural Steel (following initial ANSI/UL 1709 Rapid Rise Fire Test)
2nd ANSI/UL 1709, Rapid Rise Fire Test of Protection Materials for Structural Steel (following initial ANSI/UL 1709 Rapid Rise Fire Test) as above however subjecting CAFCO FENDOLITE M-II to Two Full Scale UL 1709 Fire Tests within a 24-hour period (tested, allowed to cool to ambient and re-tested).
ANSI/UL1709 Environmental Exposure Tests (Aging, High Humidity, Industrial Atmosphere, Salt Spray, Combined Wet/Freeze/Dry Cycling, Acid Spray and Solvent Spray)
In addition to the required ANSI/UL1709 environmental exposure tests (Aging, High Humidity, Industrial Atmosphere, Salt Spray and Combined Wet/Freeze/Dry Cycling), CAFCO FENDOLITE M-II has also been tested under the following conditions:
- Acid Spray – Exposure of the material (with and without topcoat) to a hydrochloric acid /water fog spray.
- Solvent Spray – Exposure of the material (with and without topcoat) to a spray applied solvent for 5 cycles. Each cycle consists of the application of the solvent, 6 hour dry time, re-application of the solvent, and dry time of 18 hours.
BS 476, Parts 20-21: 1987 Appendix D – Hydrocarbon Heating Conditions
BS 476 Part 21:1987 is the British Standards method for determination of the fire resistance of load bearing elements of construction including Beams, Columns, Floors, and Flat roofs. CAFCO FENDOLITE M-ll has undergone testing and meets the criteria for five limiting temperatures ranging from 662°F (350°C) to 1022°F (550°C). Thicknesses of CAFCO FENDOLITE M-ll have been determined based on the required hourly rating and steel sections’ W/D (Hp/A) ratios.
Gas Explosion Test (3-Bar Blast Overpressure)
The above test serves to demonstrate the thermal performance of a fire resistive material relative to a blast, either by fueled or explosive sources. Steel members protected with CAFCO FENDOLITE M-ll was subjected to a blast (having a nominal overpressure of 3 bars) in accordance with Spadeadam Site Test Procedure No. 108. The results following this extensive blast revealed little to no damage to the fire resistive material.
CAFCO FENDOLITE M-ll has been issued a Lloyd’s Register Certificate after successfully completing this test.
ANSI/UL 1709 Rapid Rise Fire Test (following a Gas Explosion Test)
The above test serves to demonstrate the durability of a fire protection material’s ability to withstand a blast or explosion as well as the resulting pool fires. An ANSI/UL 1709 Rapid Rise Fire Test was conducted after the CAFCO FENDOLITE M-ll protected steel members were subjected to a gas explosion test (maximum overpressure of 3.11 bars).
CAFCO FENDOLITE M-ll meets the criteria of this combined test and carries a Lloyd’s Register Certificate.
ISO 22899-1 Determination of the Resistance to Jet Fires of Passive Fire Protection Materials
Testing a material’s fire resistance under jet fire has arisen from the industry’s recognition that there are fire scenarios more destructive than standard hydrocarbon pooled fires. The jet fire described in ISO 22899-1:2007 involves the sonic release of propane vapor which produces an intense fire ball. The test sample is exposed to a combined radiative and convective heat flux as well as significant erosive forces due to the velocity of the jet.
CAFCO FENDOLITE M-ll meets the criteria for a J-120 rating in accordance with the ISO 22899-1 Jet Fire Test and is covered in a Lloyd’s Register Certificate.
ISO 22899-1 Jet Fire Test (following Gas Explosion Test)
This test subjects fire resistive material to high velocity fire and gas explosion replicating what often occurs in practice when a vapor cloud explosion results in a jet fire that produces intense heat and erosive forces from a pressurized fuel source.
CAFCO FENDOLITE M-ll meets the criteria of this combined test and carries a Lloyd’s Register Certificate.
Major Specification and Approval Compliance
CAFCO FENDOLITE M-ll meets or exceeds all of the major international Specifications and Approvals, including but not limited to the following:
- American Petroleum Institute (API) Section 2510, Design and Construction of Liquefied Petroleum Gas Installations (LPG)
- American Petroleum Institute (API) Section 2510A, Fire-Protection Considerations for the Design and Operation of LPG Storage Facilities
- American Petroleum Institute (API) Section 2218, Fireproofing Practices in Petroleum and Petrochemical Processing Plants
- NFPA 58, Liquified Petroleum Gas Code
- NFPA 502, Standard for Road Tunnels, Bridges and Other Limited Access Highwaysa
- Factory Mutual 4971, Fire-Protection Considerations for the Design and Operation of LPG Storage Facilities
- Germany – DIN 4102
- Netherlands – Test No. 87-88
- China – Test No. 8809
- Japan – JIS 1304
- Korea – KSF 2257
- India – CBRI
- Australia – CSIRO
- Singapore – SETSCO
“Isolatek International is able to provide materials and systems that withstand the extreme environmental conditions present in tunnels for the design life of the structure.”
Fire protection materials installed in tunnels must be capable of performing under extreme fire exposure conditions. They must withstand rapid thermal shock when exposed to fire and be able to withstand exposure to high temperatures up to 1400°C (2552°F) for long periods of time. They cannot be affected by the corrosive atmospheres present in tunnels where long term exposure to carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxide which are constantly present. They should be resistant to cyclic loading and mechanical impact and be easily repaired if damaged by vehicle impact.
Through continued research and development, Isolatek International is able to provide materials and systems that exceed the extreme conditions present in tunnels throughout the life of the structure.
Isolatek International utilizes the services of acknowledged independent third party testing laboratories to evaluate all of our materials. This ensures that tunnel owners and designers can be confident that once installed, our systems will provide durable and reliable fire protection for the design life of the tunnel. All of our current independent test reports are available upon request.
CAFCO® FENDOLITE® M-II has been extensively evaluated in accordance with the following global test methods:
- ASTM E84, “Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials”
- ASTM E605, “Standard Test Methods for Thickness and Density of Sprayed Fire Resistive Material Applied to Structural Members”
- ASTM E736, “Cohesion/Adhesion of Sprayed Fire Resistive Material Applied to Structural Members”
- ASTM E761, “Compressive Strength of Sprayed Fire Resistive Material Applied to Structural Members”
- ASTM E859, “Test Method for Air Erosion of Sprayed Fire Resistive Material Applied to Structural Members”
- ASTM E937, “Standard Test Method for Corrosion of Steel by Sprayed Fire Resistive Material Applied to Structural Members”
- ASTM E136, “Standard Test Method for Behavior of Material in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750˚ C”
- ASTM D2240, “Test Method for Rubber Property-Durometer Hardness”
- ASTM E759, “Standard Test Method for Effect of Deflection on Sprayed Fire-Resistive Material Applied to Structural Members”
- ASTM E760, “Standard Test Method for Effect of Impact on Bonding of Sprayed Fire-Resistive Material Applied to Structural Members”
- ASTM D790, “Standard Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials”
- ASTM G21, “Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Synthetic Polymeric Materials to Fungi”
- Evaluated to be resistant to cyclic loading of ± 1.5 kN / M²